Acadmic Subjects

हिन्दी सांवैधानिक तौर पर भारत की प्रथम राजभाषा है और सबसे ज्यादा बोली और समझी जानेवाली भाषा है। हिन्दी और इसकी बोलियाँ उत्तर एवं मध्य भारत के विविध प्रांतों में बोली जाती हैं । २६ जनवरी १९६५ को हिन्दी को भारत की आधिकारिक भाषा का दर्जा दिया गया ।
चीनी एवं अन्ग्रेज़ी के बाद हिन्दी विश्व में सबसे ज़्यादा बोली जाने वाली भाषा है । भारत और विदेश में ६० करोड़ (६०० मिलियन) से अधिक लोग हिन्दी बोलते, पढ़ते और लिखते हैं । फ़िजी, मॉरिशस, गयाना, सूरीनाम और नेपाल की अधिकतर जनता हिन्दी बोलती है ।

भाषाविद हिन्दी एवं उर्दू को एक ही भाषा समझते हैं । हिन्दी देवनागरी लिपि में लिखी जाती है और शब्दावली के स्तर पर अधिकांशत: संस्कृत के शब्दों का प्रयोग करती है । उर्दू नस्तालिक़ में लिखी जाती है और शब्दावली के स्तर पर उस पर फारसी और अरबी भाषाओं का ज़्यादा असर है । व्याकरणिक रुप से उर्दू और हिन्दी में लगभग शत-प्रतिशत समानता है - सिर्फ़ कुछ खास क्षेत्रों में शब्दावली के स्त्रोत में अंतर होता है। कुछ खास ध्वनियाँ उर्दू में अरबी और फारसी से ली गयी हैं और इसी तरह फारसी और अरबी के कुछ खास व्याकरणिक संरचना भी प्रयोग की जाती है।

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now the most widely used language in the world. It is spoken as a first language by the majority populations of several sovereign states, including the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, Ireland, New Zealand and a number of Caribbean nations.
It is the third-most-common native language in the world, after Mandarin Chinese and Spanish. It is widely learned as a second language and is an official language of the European Union, many Commonwealth countries and the United Nations, as well as in many world organisations.
The history of the English language really started with the arrival of three Germanic tribes who invaded Britain during the 5th century AD. These tribes, the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes, crossed the North Sea from what today is Denmark and northern Germany. At that time the inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic language. But most of the Celtic speakers were pushed west and north by the invaders - mainly into what is now Wales, Scotland and Ireland. The Angles came from "Englaland" [sic] and their language was called "Englisc" - from which the words "England" and "English" are derived.

Dr. Ramji Mahto
Associate Professor & HOD, English

Urdu is an Indo-Aryan language with about 104 million speakers, including those who speak it as a second language. It is the national language of Pakistan and is closely related to and mutually intelligible with Hindi, though a lot of Urdu vocabulary comes from Persian and Arabic, while Hindi contains more vocabulary from Sanskrit. Linguists consider Standard Urdu and Standard Hindi to be different formal registers both derived from the Khari Boli dialect, which is also known as Hindustani.
At an informal spoken level there are few significant differences between Urdu and Hindi and they could be considered varieties a single language. Urdu is also spoken in Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Botswana, Fiji, Germany, Guyana, India, Malawi, Mauritius, Nepal, Norway, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Thailand, the UAE, the UK and Zambia.
Urdu has been written with a version of the Perso-Arabic script since the 12th century and is normally written in Nastaliq style. The word Urdu is Turkish for 'foreign' or 'horde'.

Maithali is an ancient and classical language of India in which ever first book of the world Rigveda was compiled. The Vedas are dated by different scholars from 6500 B.C. to 1500 B.C. Sanskrit language must have evolved to its expressive capability prior to that. It is presumed that the language used in Vedas was prevalent in the form of different dialects. It was to some extent different from the present Sanskrit. It is termed as Vedic Sanskrit. Each Veda had its book of grammar known as Pratishakhya. The Pratishakhyas explained the forms of the words and other grammatical points. Later, so many schools of grammar developed. During this period a vast literature -Vedas, Brahmana-Granthas, Aranyakas, Upanishads and Vedangas had come to existence which could be termed as Vedic Literature being written in Vedic Sanskrit.
Sanskrit is said to belong to Indo – Aryan or Indo Germanic family of languages which includes Greek, Latin and other alike languages. William Jones, who was already familiar with Greek and Latin, when came in contact with Sanskrit, remarked that Sanskrit is more perfect than Greek, more copious than Latin and more refined than either. He said – “Sanskrit is a wonderful language”. It is noteworthy that though ancient and classical, Sanskrit is still used as medium of expression by scholars throughout India and somewhere in other parts of the world e.g. America, and Germany. Sanskrit is included in the list of modern Indian Languages in the eighth schedule of the constitution of India.

Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument. The word "philosophy" comes from the Greek (philosophia), which literally means "love of wisdom".
At APSM College, philosophy is a subject that you take as part of an overall program of study in an Arts or Science degree. The main areas of study in philosophy today include metaphysics, epistemology, logic, ethics, and aesthetics.

Dr. Suniti Kumari
Associate Professor & HOD, Philosophy

The history of the world or human history is the history of humanity from the earliest times to the present, in all places on Earth, beginning with the Paleolithic Era. World history encompasses the study of written records, from ancient times forward, plus additional knowledge gained from other sources, such as archaeology.
Ancient recorded history begins with the invention of writing. However, the roots of civilization reach back to the period before writing—humanity's prehistoryin the Paleolithic Era, or "Early Stone Age". Later, during the Neolithic Era, or New Stone Age, came the Agricultural Revolution (between 8000 and 5000 BCE) in the Fertile Crescent, where humans first began the systematic husbandry of plants and animals.
Agriculture spread until most humans lived as farmers in permanent settlements. The relative security and increased productivity provided by farming allowed these communities to expand into increasingly larger units in parallel with the evolution of ever more efficient means of transport.

Dr. Vinod Kumar Tiwari
Associate Professor & HOD, History

Economics is often called the study of how to resolve scarcity so as to best satisfy our wants and needs — how to allocate scarce resources, such as money, natural resources, our time, or our energy, among their many competing uses. That's the subject of economics.
Perhaps more important, though, is that economics is a way of thinking. The most important thing you'll get from studying economics is that you'll learn to "think like an economist" — developing skill at identifying the essential elements of a problem, and developing the analytical skills for finding solutions.
Consequently, studying economics gives you a superb preparation for many careers in business, law, government, education, and consulting. Graduates with a bachelors degree in economics are sought by financial institutions, by consulting firms, by government agencies, by law schools and business schools, and by business firms of all kinds and all sizes. This is reflected in the salaries that economics graduates command — and not only at the beginning of their careers, but also in growth of income throughout their careers.

Dr. Ashwini Kumar Pathak
Associate Professor, Economics

Psychology evolved out of both philosophy and biology. Discussions of these two subjects date as far back as the early Greek thinkers including Aristotle and Socrates. The word psychology is derived from the Greek word psyche, meaning 'soul' or 'mind.'
Today, psychologists prefer to use more objective scientific methods to understand, explain and predict human behavior. Psychological studies are highly structured, beginning with a hypothesis that is then empirically tested. The discipline has two major areas of focus: academic psychology and applied psychology. Academic psychology focuses on the study of different sub-topics within psychology including personality, social behavior and human development. These psychologists conduct basic research that seeks to expand our theoretical knowledge, while other researchers conduct applied research that seeks to solve everyday problems. Psychology is a broad and diverse field. A number of different subfields and specialty areas have emerged.

Political Science is the study of governments, public policies and political processes, systems, and political behavior. Political science subfields include political theory, political philosophy, political ideology, political economy, policy studies and analysis, comparative politics, international relations, and a host of related fields. Political scientists use both humanistic and scientific perspectives and tools and a variety of methodological approaches to examine the process, systems, and political dynamics of all countries and regions of the world.
Political science students can gain a versatile set of skills that can be applied in a wide range of exciting careers in central, state and local governments; law; business; international organizations; nonprofit associations and organizations; campaign management and polling; journalism; precollegiate education; electoral politics; research and university and college teaching.
On the collaborative research front, the Department is committed to an inter-disciplinary thematic thrust area of Democracy, Development and Peace, with generous support by UGC under its Departmental Special Assistance Programme. This has helped build on the traditional strengths in various sub-fields as well as across disciplinary boundaries.

Physics is the scientific study of matter and energy and how they interact with each other. This energy can take the form of motion, light, electricity, radiation, gravity . . . just about anything, honestly. Physics deals with matter on scales ranging from sub-atomic particles (i.e. the particles that make up the atom and the particles that make up those particles) to stars and even entire galaxies.
In a broader sense, physics can be seen as the most fundamental of the natural sciences. Chemistry, for example, can be viewed as a complex application of physics, as it focuses on the interaction of energy and matter in chemical systems. We also know that biology is, at its heart, an application of chemical properties in living things, which means that it is also, ultimately, ruled by the physical laws.

Dr. Rajeshwar Chaudhary
Associate Professor & HOD, Physics

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Botany covers a wide range of scientific disciplines including structure, growth, reproduction, metabolism, development, diseases, chemical properties, and evolutionary relationships among taxonomic groups. Botany began with early human efforts to identify edible, medicinal and poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest branches of science. Nowadays, botanists study about 400,000 species of living organisms.
Modern botany traces its roots back more than twenty three centuries, to the Father of Botany, Theophrastus (c. 371–287 BC), a student of Aristotle. He invented and described many of the principles of modern botany. His two major works, Enquiry into Plants and On the Causes of Plants constitute the most important contribution to botanical science during antiquity and the Middle Ages, and held that position for some seventeen centuries after they were written.

Dr. Gauri Shankar Pd. Singh
Associate Professor & HOD, Botany

Zoology is the scientific study of animals. Zoology is actually a branch of biology. There are several branches of zoology that are specialized fields within the realm of zoology. The field of zoology was established in German and Britain universities although the study of animals has been around for a much longer period in history. Such renowned names as Charles Darwin and even Aristotle have contributed to the importance of this branch of scientific study. Modern day zoology is certainly an interesting field although it is not a glamorous one nor is it always financially lucrative.
The methods of animal study can be broken down into several categories. It is a broad and diverse field that studies not just mammals but reptiles, birds, even insects and spiders. Zoology even goes a step further by studying species that have become extinct as well as speculative species meaning those that may or may not exist. There are many specializations within the field of zoology to explore.

Mathematics is the abstract study of topics encompassing quantity, structure, space, change, and other properties; it has no generally accepted definition. The word mathematics comes from the Greek máthēma, which, in the ancient Greek language, means "what one learns", "what one gets to know", hence also "study" and "science", and in modern Greek just "lesson".
The word máthēma is derived from μανθάνω (manthano), while the modern Greek equivalent is mathaino, both of which mean "to learn". In Greece, the word for "mathematics" came to have the narrower and more technical meaning "mathematical study", even in Classical times. Its adjective is mathēmatikós, meaning "related to learning" or "studious", which likewise further came to mean "mathematical".

Dr. Shamim Ahmed
Associate Professor & HOD, Mathematics